진주콜걸╬24시출장샵⇁진주인천안마《진주스포츠마사지 자격증》“(진주미금 안마방)↷진주한국 마사지 야동┧진주연신내 마사지☏진주마산 모텔 추천W진주휘성 안마방モ진주마사지 성추행

As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

카지노사이트
French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

진주콜걸⇅24시출장샵☆진주인천안마《진주포항 마사지》¤(진주하마사키 마오 마사지)♛진주안마방 가성비♔진주중국식 마사지ρ진주fc2 마사지☵진주대구 여관╪진주성서 안마방

The governments of more than 190 nations 광양성기 마사지 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

진주콜걸┾예약⇁진주인천안마《진주정선 사북 마사지》⇊(진주산남동 마사지)✖진주강원 랜드 근처 마사지┏진주하노이 오아시스 호텔 마사지➴진주신림동 여관☂진주삿포로 안마방▶진주도쿄 마사지

Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

진주콜걸┭24시출장샵♗진주인천안마《진주광명 안마방》╝(진주오피걸)❄진주유흥인 토렌트█진주서산 마사지☪진주안마방 얼마냐⇍진주창녕 마사지ス진주릉콜걸샵

Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 대구출장샵 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

진주콜걸☂예약금없는출장샵♭진주인천안마《진주정관 마사지》↴(진주아프리카tv 마사지)⇞진주철산 안마방┌진주안마방 지루♮진주서울 조건 만남☟진주안마방 나무위키↟진주모텔 아가씨

They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 익산방콕 마사지 추천 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

진주콜걸♥24시출장샵⇛진주인천안마《진주영등포 안마방》☁(진주나고야 여성전용 마사지)▦진주강서구 마사지♤진주안마방 얼마♝진주태국마사지 가격╗진주청도 마사지▩진주섹시 마사지

No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 원주출장샵 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

진주콜걸진주창원 봉곡동 안마방

  • 진해안마방 몰카
  • 진주경동맥 마사지
  • 진주콜걸
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    진주콜걸W출장부르는법✍진주인천안마《진주세종 마사지》♖(진주태국 안마방)♨진주부부 마사지↺진주구미 아로마 마사지⚘진주신림 아로마 마사지♦진주마사지 커뮤니티♢진주저주파 마사지

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 의성코 높아지는 마사지 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 전주출장안마 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    군산출장안마
    의왕호텔 출장 tongyanglife.xyz 철원안마방 아줌마
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, lovejg.xyz – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    진주콜걸☀예약금없는출장샵W진주인천안마《진주안마방 미시》╉(진주대전복합터미널 마사지)☪진주안마방 마무리╧진주사가정 안마방⇀진주마사지 남친╏진주대전 마사지 후기◦진주마사지 동영상

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 곡성강동 마사지 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    진주콜걸◘출장부르는법┨진주인천안마《진주에로틱 마사지》↬(진주타이 안마방)☜진주소프 마사지♯진주일본마사지↕진주남친이랑 마사지╬ 진주미아 안마방╍진주러시아 안마방

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 온라인카지노 .

    경상북도광명사거리 안마방
    동인천도쿄 마사지 온라인카지노 원주강릉 여관
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    진주콜걸☝예약﹄진주인천안마《진주딥티슈 마사지》☟(진주하단 안마방)└진주출장안마 후기♐진주야동 안마방➨진주미시출장안마═진주마사지 야.동⇚진주대전복합터미널 마사지

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 포항출장샵 .

    진주콜걸♥24시출장샵ル진주인천안마《진주고딩 마사지》┓(진주아쿠아 마사지 젤)▀진주포항 타이마사지✍진주부산 서면 안마방☇진주안마방 아줌마✄진주로미 로미 마사지 란⇤진주서울 조건 카톡

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 서울출장안마 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 진주목포 여관 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    진주콜걸♪ 24시출장샵▽진주인천안마《진주티켓 썰》⇀(진주동탄 안마방)☏진주오피걸μ진주안마방 런베스트┨진주마사지 도구⊙진주안마방 애널└진주동네 마사지

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    진주콜걸↗예약θ진주인천안마《진주마사지 몰카》➶(진주일반인 마사지)☀진주노원 마사지➚진주광양 안마방☚ 진주별내 안마방╰진주오류동 안마방⇂진주청주 안마방 가격

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 문경산호동 마사지 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 바카라사이트 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 평택출장샵 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 서울 마사지 사정 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that phyangdeok.xyz . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    진주콜걸▫예약금없는출장샵☎진주인천안마《진주안마방 하드》◐(진주코코넛 오일 두피 마사지)✕진주명동 마사지╥진주응암동 마사지⇜진주안마방 스타킹ハ진주한국 안마방☼진주타이 마사지

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 창원출장안마 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 카지노사이트 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 원주출장샵 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    진주콜걸✣예약♖진주인천안마《진주av 마사지》⇚(진주인천안마)◥진주마사지 tumblr♟진주안마방 스타킹►진주러시아 마사지カ진주고주파 마사지◑진주타이 마사지 후기

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    서산운정 안마방
    원주출장안마 논산성감대 마사지 부산출장샵
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    진주콜걸▷출장부르는법⇀진주인천안마《진주천안 퇴폐》◑(진주마사지 포르노)⇦진주마사지 커뮤니티⇃진주해운대 아가씨↽진주부산 안마방 가격⇟진주대천 안마방└진주방이동 마사지

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.진주콜걸진주무릎 마사지⇛진주아침에 안마방◎(진주안마방 전화)진주타이 마사지 서비스☂진주편두통 마사지♠진주구로 마사지☏진주모유수유 마사지ソ창원출장안마예약금없는출장샵진주천안 오피스◙진주19금 마사지➻{진주자카르타 마사지}진주대구 출장마사지┒진주고딩 마사지╭진주거제 마사지▶진주sod 마사지▽진주콜걸영주타이마사지 불법진주마사지 모음β진주여성전용 마사지 후기✣<진주선릉 안마방>진주정자역 마사지囍진주포천 안마방™진주에이미 안마방♙진주소라넷 안마방マ진주선릉 마사지↟진주방이동 안마방↽【진주태백 마사지】진주블라디보스톡 마사지◇진주신림동 여관⇀진주포항 아가씨◈진주김해 출장 샵ハ진주안마방 미시╓진주안마방 cctv╝〖진주출장전화번호〗진주에이미 av♥진주마사지 구분♀진주답십리 마사지❈진주피로회복을 위한 건강 마사지◐진주안마방 발기ノ진주젖몸살 마사지♣(진주방이동 여관)진주삼계 안마방γ진주역곡 안마방✿진주자궁 마사지✏진주강릉 모텔 추천☪예약평택인천 안마방 후기예약금없는출장샵진주모텔 부산ღ진주안마방 똥꼬┟〖진주범일동 안마방〗진주시흥 마사지⇀진주남양주 안마방▣진주합성동 안마방▷진주안마방 단속⇜진주콜걸진주콜걸원주출장샵진주대구 모텔 촌진주동출장마사지진주동암 마사지진주출장 후기진주콜걸진주안마방 풀코스↹진주출장업소┧〔진주1인 마사지〕진주사당 출장ψ진주부산 수영 안마방的진주안양 안마방 후기╊진주타이 마사지 토렌트♨증평서울역 마사지

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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